It is security applied to computer, smart phones, computer network, etc. It also includes public networks, private networks or the internet itself. To restrict the unauthorized access, change or distribution, different techniques are applied to secure the information. Cyber security is applied to make the data secure.
Vulnerabilities: It is any weaknesses present in a system. A hacker can use the vulnerably to steal some data form a system, Following are some impotent types of
• Backdoors: In a computer system, backdoor refers to a method of bypassing the normal authentication and securing remote access to a computer.
• Denial-of-Service Attack: It is different than other exploits. It is not used to get control of a system. This type of attack aims at making a facility unusable.
• Direct-Access Attacks: It happens when an unauthorized person gets physical access to a system. By accessing a system that person can make changes in the system or can install a software to compromise the security
• Eavesdropping: it means to secretly listen to a private conversation. Sometimes intelligence agencies use this method to intercept the conversation between two suspects.
• Spoofing: In this kind of attack, the attacker pretends to be someone else to the victim and takes some information.
• Tampering: It is the changing of a product to make it harmful for others.
• Repudiation: It is a situation in which authenticity of a signature is being challenged.
• Information Disclosure: In this kind of attack the information gets stolen.
• Privilege Escalation: In this kind of attack, the attacker gets control of a facility that is restricted to him.
• Exploits: In this kind of attack, the attacker exploits a flaw in a computer system.
• Indirect Attacks: It is launched by a third party computer. In this attack, an attacker takes control of a computer system and uses it for wrong acts.
• Computer Crime: This type refers to any type of crime that is committed using a computer system.
Vulnerable Areas: Nowadays, computer is used in every organization. So it is important to make their defense safe so that no one can access any information on the computer systems. Following is the list of the favorite victims of the cyber attacks of all times,
• Financial Systems
• Utilities and Industrial Equipment
• Consumer Devices
• Large Corporations
• Social Engineering and Human Error:
• A global Problem:
Financial Costs of Security Breach: Security breaches can cause very huge losses to any organization. Due to security breaches, billions of losses have faced by organizations in the past.
• Security and Systems Design: It means to design a system in such a way that is totally free from any breach.
• Security Measures: Security measures are ensured by three steps: threat prevention, detection and response. User account access controls, cryptography, firewalls, intrusion detection systems and other techniques are used as security measures.
o Difficulty with Response: Due to some loopholes in the security system, it get difficult to respond to any security breaches because identifying attacker is difficult, a lot of attacks at a time, inability of the IT staff to respond.
• Reducing Vulnerabilities: Reducing vulnerabilities is one the protection technique. Penetration test can identify vulnerabilities in a security system.
• Security by Design: It is important to design the security posture of your organization that is complacent with latest security standards.
• Security Architecture: it is important to make use of the latest and more secure security techniques to avoid any type of hacking attack.
• Hardware Protection Mechanisms: Hardware based securities are also used to make computer or network strong but hardware protection mechanisms are generally not considered as best mean to make system secure.
• Secure Operating Systems: Secure operating systems can provide a sound base of security.
• Secure Coding: There are two security models that are capable of enforcing privilege separation: Access Control Lists (ACLs) and Capability-Based Security.
• Capabilities and Access Control Lists:
• Hacking Back: It means to follow the hackers who have attacked on a computer system. Some people are against this technique and some are in favor of this technique.
Governments: Governments play an important role to regulate the cyber security. Governments enact laws related to cyber security from time to time.
Terminology: There are certain terminologies that are important to learn to understand the science of computer and system security.
At the end we can say that computer and system security is very important. There is increasing number of attacks on the computer systems of organizations. Every organization should develop a strong system security mechanism to ensure that its systems are free from any influence.