The Basics About Hacking


Mar 13th, 2015

A computer hacker is person who is not authorized to access a certain facility but it accesses that facility. A hacker first check and study the system and gather some vulnerabilities in the system. Most of the time, hackers try to harm others via the internet. Sometimes hacking techniques are used to

History: The history of hacking dates back to 1960s to Yippie, a counterculture movement that published

Classification: By the passage of time, hacking field is getting deeper and deeper. There are many types of hackers. It is now a broad field that consists mainly on good hackers and bad hackers. Following are some terms used for different hackers based on the nature of hacking.

  • White Hat: A white hat uses hacking techniques for non-malicious purposes. It generally uses hacking techniques to test its own or one’s employer’s security.
  • Black Hat: A black hat is a person who uses hacking techniques to harm others.
  • Grey Hat: This term is a combination of terms white hat and black hat. A grey hat generally breaks into to the systems of others only to inform that person about his or her vulnerabilities.
  • Elite Hacker: This term refers to a veteran or highly skilled hacker. These people introduce or are aware of the new hacking techniques.
  • Script Kiddie: Script Kiddie or Skid or Skiddie refers to an amateur hacker who is not adept in hacking techniques to break in to the systems of others but uses automated tools written by others.
  • Neophyte: A neophyte is a person new to hacking or phreaking with a limited knowledge of hacking and hacking techniques.
  • Blue Hat: Blue hat are generally hackers other than consulting firms. They are used to test a system before its launch.
  • Hacktivist: It is generally a political, religious or other activist who used spread their message by using hacking technique.
  • Nation State: Nation state refers to the intelligence agencies operatives of nation state.
  • Organized Criminal Gangs: If many hackers work together in the form of organization to harm others.


  • Security Exploits: It is an application that exploits the known weakness of a system.
  • Techniques:
    • Vulnerability scanner
    • Finding vulnerabilities
    • Brute-force attack
    • Password cracking
    • Packet analyzer
    • Spoofing attack (phishing)
    • Rootkit
    • Social engineering: Social engineering can be broken down into four sub-groups
  • Intimidation
  • Helpfulness
  • Name-dropping
  • Technical
  • Trojan horses
  • Computer virus
    • Computer worm
    • Keystroke logging

Notable Intruders and Criminal Hackers:

  • Jacob Appelbaum
  • Rakshit Tandon
  • Eric Corley
  • Ed Cummings
  • Dan Kaminsky
  • Andrew Auernheimer
  • Gordon Lyon
  • Gary McKinnon
  • Kevin Mitnick
  • Rafael Núñez
  • Meredith L. Patterson
  • Len Sassaman
  • Solar Designer
  • Michał Zalewski


  • Hacker Group and Conventions: There are many forums where hackers share fraternal information to help other likeminded people to learn hacking techniques.

 Consequences for Malicious Hacking: Hacking is crime in many countries. India, the US, the Netherland and many other countries have laws in place to fine and punish hackers.

Hacking and the Media:

  • Hacker Magazines:
    • Phrack
    • Hakin9
    • 2600: The Hacker Quarterly
  • Books:
    • The cyberpunk novels of William Gibson—especially the Sprawl trilogy—are very popular with hackers.
    • Helba from the .hack manga and anime series
    • Merlin of Amber, the protagonist of the second series in The Chronicles of Amber by Roger Zelazny, is a young immortal hacker-mage prince who has the ability to traverse shadow dimensions.
    • Lisbeth Salander in The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo by Stieg Larsson
    • Alice from Heaven’s Memo Pad
    • Ender’s Game by Orson Scott Card
    • Evil Genius by Catherine Jinks
    • Hackers (anthology) by Jack Dann and Gardner Dozois
    • Little Brother by Cory Doctorow
    • Neuromancer by William Gibson
    • Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson
  • Films:
    • Antitrust
    • Cypher
    • Eagle Eye
    • Enemy of the State
    • Firewall
    • Girl With The Dragon Tattoo
    • Hackers
    • Live Free or Die Hard
    • The Matrix series
    • The Net
    • The Net 2.0
    • Pirates of Silicon Valley
    • Skyfall
    • Sneakers
    • Swordfish
    • Take Down
    • Tron
    • Tron: Legacy
    • Untraceable
    • WarGames
    • Weird Science
    • The Fifth Estate
    • Who Am I – No System Is Safe

·         Non-fiction books:

  • The Art of Deception by Kevin Mitnick
  • The Art of Intrusion by Kevin Mitnick
  • The Cuckoo’s Egg by Clifford Stoll
  • Ghost in the Wires: My Adventures as the World’s Most Wanted Hacker by Kevin Mitnick
  • The Hacker Crackdown by Bruce Sterling
  • The Hacker’s Handbook by Hugo Cornwall (Peter Sommer)
  • Hacking: The Art of Exploitation Second Edition by Jon Erickson
  • Out of the Inner Circle by Bill Landreth and Howard Rheingold
  • Underground by Suelette Dreyfus

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